Revitalizing Our Lives With Epitalon

Epitalon, also known as Epithalone or Epithalon, is a synthetic version of Epithalamin, a polypeptide naturally produced in the pineal gland.

The Epitalon peptide was discovered many years back by the Russian scientist Professor Vladimir Khavinson[i]. He carried out epitalon-related research for the following 35 years in both animal and human trials.

Primarily, the role of Epitalon is to increase natural production of telomerase. Telomerase is a natural enzyme that enables cells to reproduce telomeres – the protective parts of our DNA. In turn, this promotes the replication of DNA in order for the body to grow new cells and rejuvenate the old cells.

Younger people produce more telomerase than older people. In addition, they produce longer telomeres which leads to better cell health and replication.

As people age, telomerase production decreases and subsequently leads to cell replication decline. That’s where Epitalon comes in.

What Does Epitalon Do?

Epitalon definition: a mini protein that stimulates the production of telomerase.

How does Epitalon work? It works by regulating metabolism, heightening sensitivity of hypothalamus, stabilizing the function of the anterior pituitary and regulating melatonin levels in the body.

Epithalon peptide[ii] has a unique make-up of organisms determined by double-stranded DNA in the nucleus of the cells. At the tip of those DNA strands, you’ll find telomeres. They are responsible for preventing genetic information loss resulting from chromosome-shortening which happens with every cell separation.

Each time a cell separates, its replication is incomplete and consequently, telomeres get shorter. The more this happens, the more the telomeres shorten.

Numerous studies show that this shortening is linked to a slew of age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease and even early mortality in elderly people.

Known as the Epitalon fountain of youth due to its longevity effects, a high level of Epitalon results in overall wellness and wellbeing.

Effects of Epitalon

According to many studies[iii] conducted on both animals and humans, Epitalon is a substance biologically identical to the one produced by the human body. It can set the biological body clock of cells to zero in order for the cells to regain the reestablishment of optimal organ function and repair the body’s tissues.

Epitalon is a biopeptide created from four gero-protective amino acids (tetrapeptide: L-alanyl-l-glutamyl-l-asparagyl-glycine), which can be administered orally, intra-nasally, parenterally, sublingually, and also topically.

Russian researchers have discovered a lot about epithalon in recent years. For instance, they now know that it can reactivate telomerase production in cells. Furthermore, they know that it can also rejuvenate the whole body and promote health. They’ve even discovered that it can address the source of ageing.

Benefits of Epitalon Peptide

Scientific research proves that there are a number of Epitalon benefits. In short, these are the beneficial health effects of Epitalon peptide:

  • Increases longevity and human lifespan
  • Prevents age-related diseases such as dementia, heart disease, and cancer
  • Promotes deeper sleep
  • Improved skin health
  • Strengthens muscle cells
  • Speeds up healing
  • Reduces lipid oxidation and reactive oxygen species
  • Increases resistance to emotional stress
  • Stabilizes melatonin levels in elderly people

Of course, robust research must be carried out on this protein in order to fully understand its full affects. However, from what scientists have uncovered about epithalon, it seems likely that it will soon be available for human use to treat and cure a number of health issues. Remarkably, scientists believe that Epitalon could soon be used as a treatment and a preventative medicine against cancer.

To further understand the health benefits of Epitalon peptide, we’re going to take a deeper look at its benefits and full scope of potential uses.

Epitalon Anti-Aging Effects

In 1992, Professor Vladimir Dilman and Dr. Ward Dean co-authored a paper entitled “The neuroendocrine theory of aging and degenerative disease,” which showed that biopeptide epitalon can increase the lifespan of rats by 25%.

These findings were then confirmed by various subsequent studies carried out by Professor Vladimir Khavinson, President of the St Petersburg Institute of Bio-regulation.

As discovered by these researchers, Epitalon increases lifespan thanks to its ability to connect several amino acids by peptide bonds. This can also stimulate brain activity and reduce tumor formations.

After 15 years of clinical observation, Khavinson’s research on elderly individuals showed that biopeptides significantly improved physiological function and decreased mortality by approximately 50%.

He also demonstrated that the epithalon biopeptide DNA interactions could control genetic functions and consequently successfully extend life expectancy.

Research shows that mice given Epitalon from the age of three months until their natural death increased their lifespan compared to mice given placebo. Epitalon treatment also lowered the frequency of chromosome abnormalities in the subjects’ bone marrow cells. Treatment with Epitalon also prevented leukaemia development in mice. Overall, the results of the study suggest that this peptide offers a powerful anti-aging effect and is safe for long-term use.

Numerous animal studies show that taking Epitalon results in the following effects:

  • Regulated production of cortisol and melatonin in aging monkey, helping to stabilize the rhythm of cortisol secretion.
  • Protected reproductive system and corrected impairment in the reproductive systems of rats.
  • Preserved structure of the retina in retinitis pigmentosa.
  • Inhibited proliferation of colon tumors in rats.

Epitalon Skin Effects

In addition to its anti-aging effects, Epitalon promotes better skin health.

Research by Dr Khavinson shows that epithalon can activate the cells[iv] responsible to repairing and maintaining the extracellular matrix that keeps skin healthy and youthful. The extracellular matrix is where collagen and elastin can be found – the two anti-aging powerhouses.

While there are a number of skin aging creams that claim to strengthen collagen in the skin, they do not penetrate the skin as deeply as Epitalon. Epithalon penetrates the cells themselves and promotes both growth and development of the fibroblasts that make proteins like collagen. In turn, this leads to optimum skin regeneration.

But it’s not just the vanity side of aging that epithalon peptide helps. It can also ward off disease, infection and damage. Aged skin is prone to tears and being brittle. Epitalon used on the skin can ward off those symptoms.

Epitalon for Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa is a degenerative eye disease that leads to the degeneration of the rods in the retina. Rods are a type of receptor in the eye that convert light into chemical signals. In a clinic trial, research showed that Epitalon improved degenerative damage to the retina caused by the condition.

In studies on rats, Epitalon advances the function of retinal cells by preventing degeneration and preserving the rod structure.

As per a study on humans and rats, it proves that Epitalon is an effective treatment for retinitis pigmentosa. Still, further research is needed to confirm the findings.

Epitalon Sleep Effects

Epitalon can allegedly correct circadian rhythms. In case you are wondering, what are circadian rhythms, let us explain.

Essentially, circadian rhythms are mental, physical and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle. Circadian rhythms respond mainly to light and darkness, which is why sleeping at night and being awake in the day is a good example of a light-related circadian rhythm. Nearly all living things have them – humans, animals, plants and even tiny microbes.

However, as humans age, those rhythms get disrupted and less prominent, due to decreased melatonin secretion.

In a small study on 14 elderly people[v], epitalon significantly improved melatonin production. It also altered its cycle to mimic those of young people.

Another study on aging monkeys also showed how Epitalon stimulated evening melatonin secretion and corrected the biological rhythm.

And because they determine our sleep patterns, it appears clear that Epitalon improves sleep dramatically in the process. Thus, Epitalon supplementation may improve the overall sleep quality and patterns of users.

Epitalon for Cancer

Epitalon research is still mainly in the animal stage and further human studies are required in order to better understand this peptide. However, research shows that Epitalon as a cancer treatment and for cancer prevention can be extremely effective. Of course, you should not attempt to replace conventional cancer therapies with this protein. Still, it is interesting to see how beneficial its effects are on a number of health conditions.

According to studies on rats, Epitalon peptide increases lymph flow and apoptosis while slowing down cancer growth.

In mice with mammary tumors, Epitalon reduced the number of mice with multiple tumors and reduced the maximum size of the tumors. Researchers also learned that peptide Epitalon decreased the expression of certain genes that can play a key role in the development of certain cancers such as breast cancer in both mice and humans.

Meanwhile, an additional study in mice found that Epitalon treatment reduced the number of mice with cancerous tumors. It also prevented cancer from moving to another location in the body — most interestingly, in all of the treated mice. As for the mice that did not receive the Epitalon administration, metastases were observed in 3 out of the 9.

How Is Epitalon Used?

Epitalon is typically administered via intravenous or intramuscular injection. It can also be administered transdermally.

While many results of Epitalon are promising and certainly show a lot of beneficial effects, the majority of research has been conducted in animals. In other words, Epitalon human research remains largely unresearched.

For this reason, Epitalon is not FDA approved. That doesn’t mean it is dangerous to use, but it does mean it hasn’t yet received the sufficient human research needed to approve it for human consumption.

Overall, Epitalon antiaging effects especially look interesting and indeed, promising. Clearly the studies show how effective Epitalon is for increasing lifespan and promoting youthfulness. It also appears to be a promising cancer prevention drug.

Side Effects of Epitalon

According to over 100 scientific studies on Epitalon, there were no adverse reactions to this peptide. Of course, as with all drugs, Epitalon side effects may occur in certain individuals, which is why you should proceed with caution. If adverse effects do occur, immediately stop using.

Currently not yet approved by the FDA, Epitalon should only be purchased and used by scientific professionals for research purposes only.

Fortunately, it is considered a safe drug with no dangerous side effects. Nevertheless, the research on Epitalon continues in order to ensure its full safety and scope of benefits.

Author info: The information provided in this article was taken from studies carried out by recognized researchers including Anisimov, Vladimir N., and Vladimir Kh. Khavinson, Frolov, D. S., D. A. Sibarov, and A. B. Vol’nova, Khavinson, V., Diomede, F., Mironova, E., Linkova, N., Trofimova, S., Trubiani, O., Sinjari, B., Chalisova, N. I., N. S., Zhekalov, A. O. Orlova, G. A. Ryzhak, Shatilo, and L. V. Magdich.

References

[i] Anisimov, Vladimir N., and Vladimir Kh. Khavinson. “Peptide Bioregulation of Aging: Results and Prospects.” Biogerontology 11, no. 2 (October 15, 2009): 139–149. doi:10.1007/s10522-009-9249-8.

[ii] Frolov, D. S., D. A. Sibarov, and A. B. Vol’nova. “Altered Spontaneous Electric Activity Detected in Rat Motor Neocortex after Intranasal Epitalon Infusions.” PsycEXTRA Dataset (2004). doi:10.1037/e516032012-081.

[iii] Khavinson, V., Diomede, F., Mironova, E., Linkova, N., Trofimova, S., Trubiani, O., … Sinjari, B. (2020). AEDG Peptide (Epitalon) Stimulates Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis during Neurogenesis: Possible Epigenetic Mechanism. Molecules, 25(3), 609. doi:10.3390/molecules25030609

[iv] Chalisova, N. I., N. S. Linkova, A. N. Zhekalov, A. O. Orlova, G. A. Ryzhak, and V. Kh. Khavinson. “Short Peptides Stimulate Cell Regeneration in Skin During Aging.” Advances in Gerontology 5, no. 3 (July 2015): 176–179. doi:10.1134/s2079057015030054.

[v] Korkushko, O. V., V. Kh. Khavinson, V. B. Shatilo, and L. V. Magdich. “Effect of Peptide Preparation Epithalamin on Circadian Rhythm of Epiphyseal Melatonin-Producing Function in Elderly People.” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 137, no. 4 (April 2004): 389–391. doi:10.1023/b:bebm.0000035139.31138.bf.Cite this article as: Research Peptides Scientists, “Epitalon (Epithalon) 10mg,” in ResearchPeptides.net, June 29, 2020, https://researchpeptides.net/product/peptides/epitalon-epithalon-10mg/.

Epitalon Research Peptides Scientists

SCIENTIFIC STUDIES, CLINICAL TRIALS AND EPITALON RESULTS

EPITALON DESCRIPTION
Epitalon is derived from Epithalamin (Epithalamine), a naturally occurring polypeptide in the body, which is produced in pineal gland. A very valuable and unique main property of Epitalon is its ability to increase telomerase activity in somatic cells. This helps cells reproduce telomeres, which are the essential “protective parts” of our DNA, which eventually results in a slowdown in the aging process.

In addition, scientific studies have also shown other great possible benefits of Epitalon as prevention of cancer and age-related diseases, restoration and normalization of melatonin levels, promotion of deeper sleep and strong anti-oxidant properties. Epitalon is patented by its discoverer Professor Khavinson and was approved for general use in Russia in 1990 and has since been used in gerontology. Many scientific studies and clinical trials of Epitalon have been conducted in both animals and humans, and no adverse side effects have ever been reported to date.

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF EPITALON
Telomerase activator peptide Epitalon directly stimulates cells in the body to produce a telomerase enzyme, that renew and extends telomeres at the ends of chromosomes. This ultimately leads to a slowing of the aging of cell populations, and the aging of cell populations correlate with the overall physical aging of an organism. Clinical studies conducted with Epitalon have shown that administration of Epitalon to mammals has not only reversed the symptoms of aging but also reversed many age-related diseases. Epitalon has also been shown to help restore and normalize melatonin production by the pineal gland, as well as restoring the normal circadian rhythm of cortisol production, both of which result in better sleep at night.

DNA & CHROMOSOMES
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a molecule composed of 2 polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and RNA (Ribonucleic acid) are nucleic acids. Alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

Chromosome is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism: Within eukaryotic cells (animals, plants, fungi and protists), DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing a complete set of chromosomes for each daughter cell. Eukaryotic organisms store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA.

TELOMERE
Telomere is important region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. However, as a result of each cell division, the ends of the telomeres are shortened: During chromosome replication, the enzymes that duplicate DNA cannot continue their duplication all the way to the end of a chromosome, so in each duplication the end of the chromosome is shortened (this is because the synthesis of Okazaki fragments requires RNA primers attaching ahead on the lagging strand). This means, each cell division (each time a cell undergoes mitosis), the telomeres on the ends of each chromosome again shorten. After many divisions, the telomeres reach a critical length, resulting in the cell eventually losing its ability to divide further to replace worn, damaged or diseased cells. Further cell division becomes impossible and the cell becomes senescent. At this point, the cell reached its so-called Hayflick limit.

THE HAYFLICK LIMIT
The Hayflick limit, or Hayflick phenomenon, is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops. The concept of the Hayflick limit was advanced by American anatomist Leonard Hayflick in 1961, at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Hayflick demonstrated that a normal human fetal cell population will divide between 40 and 70 times in cell culture before entering a senescence phase. The aging of cell populations appears to correlate with the overall physical aging of an organism.

Hayflick was also the first to report that only cancer cells are immortal. Cellular senescence does not occur in most cancer cells due to expression of an enzyme telomerase, when telomerase extends telomeres / preventing the telomeres of cancer cells from shortening and by this way giving them infinite replicative potential. One of the proposed treatment for cancer is the usage of telomerase inhibitors in the cancer cells, that would prevent the restoration of their telomeres, and allows the cancer cells to die like other body cells.

TELOMERASE
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3′ end of telomeres. It is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that carries its own RNA molecule (e.g., with the sequence 3′-CCCAAUCCC-5′ in Trypanosoma brucei) which is used as a template when it elongates telomeres. Telomerase is active in gametes and most cancer cells, but is normally absent from, or at very low levels in, most somatic cells.

Telomerase restores short bits of DNA known as telomeres, which are otherwise shortened when a cell divides via mitosis. In normal circumstances, where telomerase is absent, if a cell divides recursively, at some point the progeny reach their Hayflick limit, which is believed to be between 40–70 cell divisions. At the limit the cells become senescent and cell division stops.

But Telomerase allows each offspring to replace the lost bit of DNA, allowing the cell line to divide without ever reaching the limit – allowing senescent cells that would otherwise become postmitotic and undergo apoptosis to exceed the Hayflick limit and become potentially immortal, as is often the case with cancerous cells.

Embryonic stem cells express telomerase, which allows them to divide repeatedly and form the individual. In adults, telomerase is highly expressed only in cells that need to divide regularly, especially in male sperm cells but also in epidermal cells, in activated T cell and B cell lymphocytes, as well as in certain adult stem cells, but in the great majority of cases somatic cells do not express telomerase.

PINEAL GLAND
The pineal gland is a small endocrine gland in the brain of most vertebrates. It is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. The pineal gland is one of the neuroendocrine secretory circumventricular organs in which there does not exist the blood–brain barrier at the capillary level.

The primary function of the pineal gland is to produce Melatonin, that has various functions in the central nervous system, the most important of which is to help modulate sleep patterns. The pineal gland also produces polypeptide Epithalamin, that stimulates cells in the body to produce a telomerase enzyme, that extends telomeres at the ends of chromosomes in their DNA. This ultimately leads to a slowing of the aging of cell populations.

EPITALON HISTORY
Epitalon was discovered and developed by the Russian scientist and gerontologist Professor, Doctor of Medical sciences Vladimir Khavinson of St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology, whose research is focused on the development of peptide preparations used to restore function in various organs in order to prevent and reverse the aging process. Epitalon was identified as active component of a bovine pineal gland extract (known as Epithalamin).

Low-molecular peptides isolated from pineal gland and Epithalamin of animals were studied in different biologic models. Most all performed scientific studies and clinical trials of Epitalon and Epithalamin have been conducted just by already mentioned St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology in Russia, primarily overseen by Professor Vladimir Khavinson, who has been involved in this research already for over 35 years, and has merit not only in the discovery of epitalon, but also in its highly advanced scientific and clinical review. Throughout this time, Epitalon has been extensively investigated in animal and human clinical trials and today is one of the best scientifically investigated peptides.

SCIENTIFIC STUDIES, CLINICAL TRIALS AND EPITALON RESULTS
Scientific studies in animals:

An in vivo study in aging mice found that epitalon treatment significantly reduced the incidence of chromosomal aberrations, both for wild-type mice and for mice characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype, which is consistent with increases in telomere length.

Another study in aging rats found that epitalon increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. In male rats, epithalamin increased total antioxidant capacity by 36% and superoxide dismutase (SOD, a powerful endogenous antioxidant) by 19%. Oxidative stress, which occurs when the body has a deficit in antioxidants to counteract the effects of free radicals (damaging molecules that are missing electrons), plays a causative role in many diseases, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and even neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. One of the most potent endogenous antioxidants produced by the body is Melatonin. Epitalon’s antioxidant effects are thought to be in part due to its ability to stimulate Melatonin production as well as mechanisms other than through the action of Melatonin.

Epitalon reduced the number of spontaneous tumors and the number of metastases in mice that did develop spontaneous tumors in an experiment on one-year-old female C3H/He mice, and is speculated to have oncostatic and anti-metastatic properties.

In a study of chickens subjected to neonatal hypophysectomy and subsequent maturation, epitalon promoted the recovery of the morphological structures of the thymus, as well as the structure and function of the thyroid gland. Epitalon appears to increase the proliferation of lymphocytes in the thymus, putatively increasing production of interferon gamma by T-cells. Another study in aging rats demonstrated extension of life span for rats subjected to constant illumination or to a natural light regimen typical of northern regions.

Scientific studies in humans:

In human clinical studies, epitalon and epithalamin both significantly increased telomere lengths in the blood cells of patients of ages 60-65 and 75-80, and their efficacy was comparable to one another.

Epitalon and epithalamin appear to restore melatonin secretion by the pineal gland in both aged monkeys and humans.

A human clinical trial conducted on a sample of retinitis pigmentosa patients found that epitalon produced a positive clinical effect in 90% of cases in the treated group.

In another human clinical trial conducted on a sample of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, epitalon did not appear to correct pre-existing structural aberrations of chromosomes associated with telomere degradation, but did appear to exert a protective effect against the future development of additional chromosomal aberrations.

A human prospective cohort study conducted on a sample of 266 people over age 60 demonstrated that treatment with epithalamin, the pineal gland extract upon which epitalon is based, produced a 1.6–1.8-fold reduction in mortality during the following 6 years, a 2.5-fold reduction in mortality when combined with thymulin, and a 4.1-fold reduction in mortality when combined with thymulin and administered annually instead of only once at study onset.

Another prospective cohort study on a sample of 79 coronary patients spanning in excess of 12 years found improved metrics of physical endurance, circadian rhythm, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the treated group relative to the control group following 3 years of biannual epithalamin treatments, as well as a 50% lower rate of cardiovascular mortality, a 50% lower rate of cardiovascular failure and serious respiratory disease, and a 28% lower rate of overall mortality.

Elongation of telomeres by epitalon was sufficient to surpass the Hayflick limit in a cell culture of human fetal fibroblast cells, extending their proliferative potential from termination at the 34th passage in the control cell population to beyond the 44th passage in the treated cell population, while increasing the lengths of their telomeres to levels comparable to those of cells in the original culture.

Epitalon induces decondensation of heterochromatin near the centromeres in cultured lymphocytes originating from samples taken from humans of ages 76 to 80 years.

Epitalon appears to inhibit the synthesis of the MMP9 protein in vitro in aging skin fibroblasts.

SCIENTIFICALLY INVESTIGATED POSSIBLE BENEFITS OF EPITALON
Slows the aging of cell populations by stimulating the renew and elongation of telomeres at the ends of chromosomes in DNA

Slowing of aging / anti-aging effect, rejuvenation

Prevention of cancer and age-related diseases

Restores and normalizes Melatonin production by the Pineal gland

Strong anti-oxidant properties, protects against oxidative stress, act against the effects of free radicals

Increases the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase

Reduces lipid oxidation and ROS (reactive oxygen species) together with normalization of T cell function (increases interferon gamma production by T cells)

Better, deeper sleep and its quality

Improves metrics of physical endurance, circadian rhythm, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

Healthier skin, inhibits the synthesis of the MMP9 protein in vitro in aging skin fibroblasts

Positive clinical effect in Retinitis pigmentosa disease

EPITALON POSSIBLE SIDE-EFFECTS
Performed scientific studies and clinical trials to date have not shown any significant side, undesirable or toxic effects when investigating the Epitalon peptide.

EPITALON FAQ
What is Epitalon used for?
Epitalon is used for increase the natural production of telomerase, a natural enzyme that helps cells reproduce telomeres, which are the protective parts of our DNA. This ultimately leads to a slowing of the aging of cell populations, and the aging of cell populations correlate with the overall physical aging of an organism. However, epitalone can also be used to restore and normalize melatonin levels or to protect against cell oxidative stress.

Can Epitalon slow down aging?
Scientific research and performed clinical trials have demonstrated Epitalon slows the aging and has strong anti-aging properties.

Can Epitalon prevent cancer?
Yes, Epitalon has the ability to prevent cancer.

Can Epitalon improve sleep?
Yes, Epitalon supports and normalize production of Melatonin, which leads to a better and deeper sleep.

How do you administer Epitalon?
Epitalon is usually administered by intravenous, intramuscular or transdermal / subcutaneous (under the skin, through the skin) injection. Oral administration is not effective because the peptides are broken down / cleaved in the gastrointestinal tract. This means: They cannot pass through the gastrointestinal tract in functional and intact state, up to the bloodstream to exert their effects.

Where can I buy Epitalon?
We offer Epitalon of the highest purity for bargain price.

Does Epitalon have side effects?
Clinical trials to date have not shown any significant side, undesirable or toxic effects when Epitalon was used.

EPITALON DOSAGE
In the scientific studies and clinical trials performed, the optimal dose of Epitalon is often reported as 5 – 10 mg daily, over a period of 10-20 days. The frequency of administration is one injection per day at lower doses and two injections per day at higher doses, which may be divided between morning and evening. Each course of use should be followed by a pause of 4-6 months before the course is repeated

The Basics of Epitalon

What Is Epitalon?
Epitalon is a synthetic peptide made of four amino acids (alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and glycine), that is based on a natural peptide called epithalamin extracted from the pineal gland. It was synthesized by Vladimir Khavinson, a Russian professor and gerontologist, whose research focused on the development of peptide preparations used to restore function in various organs in order to prevent and reverse the aging process. He is currently the Director of the Saint Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology

Khavinson first extracted Epithalamin from the pineal gland of calves. However, due to the inherent limitations in production, he formulated a synthetic version of the peptide called Epitalon.

How Is Epitalon Used?
Epitalon is usually administered via intravenous or intramuscular injection or transdermally (through the skin), as peptides are broken down in the digestive tract and therefore unable to enter the bloodstream, where they can exert their effects, intact.

Although some results are promising, most of the research has been conducted in animals and cells, meaning that both the potential health benefits and safety profile of Epitalon remain largely unresearched. Never take Epitalon without consulting your doctor or use it as a replacement for approved medical therapies.

What the Research Shows for Epitalon

1) Retinitis Pigmentosa
Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetic, degenerative eye disease that results in the degeneration of the rods in the retina. Rods are one of two types of receptors in the eye (the other one being cones) that convert light into chemical signals that can be processed by the brain.In a clinical trial, Epitalon improved degenerative damage to the retina caused by this condition in 90% of the patients . In rats, Epitalon improves the function of retinal cells by preserving their structure and preventing degeneration .

A single study using humans and rats cannot be considered sufficient evidence to support this potential use of Epitalon. Further clinical research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

2) Correcting Circadian Rhythms
As we age, our circadian rhythms become disrupted and less pronounced, coinciding with decreased melatonin secretion and altered sleep cycles .

In a small trial on 14 elderly people, epithalamin improved melatonin production and altered its cycle and peak concentrations to resemble those of young people .

In aging monkeys, Epitalon stimulated evening melatonin secretion and reestablished the circadian rhythm, which is associated with cortisol release .

Again, only a small clinical trial and an animal study have tested this potential health benefit. Larger, more robust clinical trials are required.

Animal and Cell Research (Lack of Evidence):
No clinical evidence supports the use of Epitalon for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies listed should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.

3) Increasing Lifespan
When the peptide was administered to fruit flies during the larval stage, it increased the average lifespan by 11-16 percent .

In a study on rats exposed to equal amounts of light and darkness, varying amounts of light and darkness, or permanent light illumination, Epitalon increased maximal lifespan in all three groups by 68 days, 95 days, and 24 days, respectively, in comparison to controls.

In mice with high blood pressure, injections of Epitalon did not affect the average lifespan of the mice but did increase the maximal lifespan by 12.3% .

Cell-based studies found that Epitalon increases telomerase activity. This enzyme adds more nucleotides to the protective sequences at the end of chromosomes (telomeres), thus allowing cells to divide and grow longer .

4) Increasing Enzyme Activity
A decrease in pancreatic enzymes has been shown to occur in elderly individuals . In both young and old rats, Epitalon increased the activity of enzymes that digest protein and sugar, with the effect being more pronounced in the older rats . Another study found that the peptide increased enzyme activity in the small intestine of aged rats [12].

5) Cancer
Below, we will discuss some preliminary research on the anticancer activity of Epitalon. It’s still in the animal stage and further clinical studies have yet to determine if this peptide is useful in cancer therapies. Do not under any circumstances attempt to replace conventional cancer therapies with Epitalon.

When Epitalon was given to rats with colon cancer, the peptide increased lymph flow (containing white blood cells) and apoptosis (programmed cell death), while it slowed cancer growth [13].

In mice with mammary tumors, Epitalon significantly decreased the number of mice with multiple tumors and decreased the maximum size of tumors in comparison to control mice [14]. The researchers also found that the peptide reduced the expression of certain genes that, when over-activated, play a key role in the development of breast cancer in both mice and humans.

Another study in mice found that treatment with Epitalon reduced the number of mice with malignant tumors (cancerous tumors) and prevented cancer from metastasizing (moving to another location in the body) in all of the treated mice. In contrast, metastases were observed in 3 out of the 9 mice that did not receive treatment with Epitalon .

Antioxidant Status
Oxidative stress, which occurs when the body has a deficit in antioxidants to counteract the effects of free radicals (damaging molecules that are missing electrons), plays a causative role in many diseases, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and even neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases [16].

One of the most potent antioxidants produced by the human body (endogenous antioxidants) is melatonin [17].

Epitalon’s antioxidant effects are thought to be in part due to its ability to stimulate melatonin production as well as mechanisms other than through the action of melatonin [18].

In male rats, epithalamin increased total antioxidant capacity by 36% and superoxide dismutase (SOD, a powerful endogenous antioxidant) by 19% [19].

When epithalamin was incubated with blood taken from breast cancer patients, they showed increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of antioxidative vitamins [20].

Conclusion
While some preclinical studies on Epitalon look promising, there is still a lot of research that needs to be conducted in healthy and diseased individuals. Epitalon has not been approved by the FDA but is available in supplements Talk to your doctor before taking Epitalon or any other supplements, especially if they have been insufficiently researched.

About the Author:
Dr. Puya Yazdi is a physician-scientist with 14+ years of experience in clinical medicine, life sciences, biotechnology, and nutraceuticals.
As a physician-scientist with expertise in genomics, biotechnology, and nutraceuticals, he has made it his mission to bring precision medicine to the bedside and help transform healthcare in the 21st century.He received his undergraduate education at the University of California at Irvine, a Medical Doctorate from the University of Southern California, and was a Resident Physician at Stanford University. He then proceeded to serve as a Clinical Fellow of The California Institute of Regenerative Medicine at The University of California at Irvine, where he conducted research of stem cells, epigenetics, and genomics. He was also a Medical Director for Cyvex Nutrition before serving as president of Systomic Health, a biotechnology consulting agency, where he served as an expert on genomics and other high-throughput technologies. His previous clients include Allergan, Caladrius Biosciences, and Omega Protein. He has a history of peer-reviewed publications, intellectual property discoveries (patents, etc.), clinical trial design, and a thorough knowledge of the regulatory landscape in biotechnology.He is leading our entire scientific and medical team in order to ensure accuracy and scientific validity of our content and products.